Skip to main content

Blog # 5. Section 194-IA Vs. 195

Sec 194IA:
(1) Any person, being a transferee, responsible for paying (other than the person referred to in section 194LA) to a resident transferor any sum by way of consideration for transfer of any immovable property (other than agricultural land), shall, at the time of credit of such sum to the account of the transferor or at the time of payment of such sum in cash or by issue of a cheque or draft or by any other mode, whichever is earlier, deduct an amount equal to one per cent of such sum as income-tax thereon.
(2) No deduction under sub-section (1) shall be made where the consideration for the transfer of an immovable property is less than fifty lakh rupees.
(3) The provisions of section 203A shall not apply to a person required to deduct tax in accordance with the provisions of this section.
Sec 194-IA deals with TDS on sale of immovable property. Under this section TDS is to be deducted @1% at the time of credit of such sum to the account of the transferor or at the time of payment of such sum whichever is earlier on sale of immovable property.
The transferor or the seller contemplated in this section should be a resident of India. Therefore, this section only deals with sale of property by residents and TDS @1% is to be deducted on such sale by resident seller provided the consideration for sale of property exceeds Rs. 50 lacs.
Now let us examine relevant extracts of section 195 of the Income Tax Act’1961.
Sec 195:
Any person responsible for paying to a non-resident, not being a company, or to a foreign company, any interest or any other sum chargeable under the provisions of this Act shall, at the time of credit of such income to the account of the payee or at the time of payment thereof in cash or by the issue of a cheque or draft or by any other mode, whichever is earlier, deduct income-tax thereon at the rates in force:
[Explanation 2.—For the removal of doubts, it is hereby clarified that the obligation to comply with sub-section (1) and to make deduction thereunder applies and shall be deemed to have always applied and extends and shall be deemed to have always extended to all persons, resident or non-resident, whether or not the non-resident person has—
(i) a residence or place of business or business connection in India; or
(ii) any other presence in any manner whatsoever in India.]
(2) Where the person responsible for paying any such sum chargeable under this Act (other than salary) to a non-resident considers that the whole of such sum would not be income chargeable in the case of the recipient, he may make an application to the [Assessing] Officer to determine, [by general or special order], the appropriate proportion of such sum so chargeable, and upon such determination, tax shall be deducted under sub-section (1) only on that proportion of the sum which is so chargeable.
[(3) Subject to rules made under sub-section (5), any person entitled to receive any interest or other sum on which income-tax has to be deducted under sub-section (1) may make an application in the prescribed form to the [Assessing] Officer for the grant of a certificate authorising him to receive such interest or other sum without deduction of tax under that sub-section, and where any such certificate is granted, every person responsible for paying such interest or other sum to the person to whom such certificate is granted shall, so long as the certificate is in force, make payment of such interest or other sum without deducting tax thereon under sub-section (1).
(4) A certificate granted under sub-section (3) shall remain in force till the expiry of the period specified therein or, if it is cancelled by the [Assessing] Officer before the expiry of such period, till such cancellation…..
Section 195 talks about sums payable to a non-resident which are chargeable to tax in India under the Income Tax Act’1961.
When a Non-resident sells an Immovable property in India, Capital gains income may accrue on such sale to the Non-resident which is chargeable to tax in India. Therefore, the consideration from sale of property in India by a non-resident is chargeable to tax in India and is covered by Section 195 and therefore tax has to be deducted at the time of payment of such consideration.
Now the question arises as to the rate of deduction of tax. Sub-section (1) of section 195 prescribes that tax is to be deducted at the rates in force. Rates in force is the rate at which a particular type of income is taxable under the provisions of the Income Tax Act. For the purpose of sale by a non-resident of an immovable property, we will have to see the rates prescribed for taxation of capital gains. As per section 112, Long term capital gains on sale of a capital asset is to be taxed at the rate of 20%. Short-term capital gain on sale of a capital asset (except on sale of equity shares and equity oriented mutual funds) is to be taxed at the slab rates prescribed under the Finance Act applicable to the year of sale. Therefore, here we can draw the conclusion that the buyer/ transferee has to deduct tax on sale of immovable property by the non-resident at the slab rate prescribed in case property is sold within three years of its purchase and at the rate of 20% where property is sold after three years of its purchase i.e where LTCG accrues.
Section 90:
Now as per section 90 of the Income Tax Act’1961, the rates of taxation on taxable income of a non-resident will be as prescribed under the Income Tax Act’1961 or under the DTAA of India with the country of which the non-resident is a resident, whichever is more beneficial to the tax payer. Therefore, if the rates prescribed for taxation of capital gains in the DTAA are less than the 20% rate or the slab rate, then tax will be deducted at that rate. However, for availing the benefit of lower rate of deduction of tax under the DTAA, the non-resident transferor will have to furnish a Tax Residency Certificate to the payer indicating the tax residency of which he is a resident.

On what amount is the tax to be deducted?
After determining the rate of tax, now the question arises that on which amount is the tax to be deducted. The tax is to be deducted on income only i.e on the amount of capital gains arising to the non-resident out of the total consideration. But how will the payer determine the amount of capital gains arising to the non-resident transferee. The answer lies in sub-sections (2) & (3) of section 195. Under, the provisions of these sub-sections the payer or transferor/payee may make an application to the jurisdictional Assessing officer to determine the sum of capital gains on which tax is to be deducted. The application to the AO will be made in the prescribed form. The amount determined by the AO will be the amount on which tax is to be deducted. However, if no such application is made by the payer or the payee to determine the sum chargeable to tax, the tax will be deducted on the entire consideration for sale of immovable property.
S.194-IA vs 1


  1. Astonishing online journal, Which you have shared here about section 194. This article is educational and I got a kick out of the chance to watch it. Much obliged to you. File Taxes Online Canada


Post a Comment

Popular posts from this blog

Blog # 26. Concept of Real Income under the Income Tax Act, 1961

  What is Income ? Before understanding the concept of Real Income, it shall be important to go through the the term “Income” and “Real”. Income is defined under S.2(24) of the Income Tax Act, 1961(Hereinafter referred as “the Act”). The definition as provided under the Act is an inclusive definition so as to cover up all the usual as well as unusual items, however it certainly does not define it in a way that we can be said it to be precise. The same can be understood by various Judge Made Laws. The first and the lead amongst them is a Privy Council Judgment in the case of Kamakshya Narain   Singh CIT 11 ITR 513 (PC)         Facts The assesse was a “Raja” gave mining lease and He received payments by way of royalty for coal mines leased out to various lessees. The case of the Assessee was that this royalty income received by the Assessee was nothing but the recoupment of the resources which shall be exhausted by the end of the lease and thus the same was not income bu

Blog # 20. S.53A of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882 and Related Laws

Section 53A of the Transfer of Property Act. 1882 is as under :- “53A. Part performance. – Where any person contracts to transfer for consideration any immovable property by writing signed by him or on his behalf from which the terms necessary to constitute the transfer can be ascertained with reasonable certainty, and the transferee has, in part performance of the contract, taken possession of the property or any pat thereof, or the transferee, being already in possession, continues in possession in part performance of the contract and has done some act in furtherance of the contract, and the transferee has performed or is willing to perform his part of the contract, then, notwithstanding that [***] where there is an instrument of transfer, that the transfer has not been completed in the manner prescribed therefor by the law for the time being in force, the transferor or any person claiming under him shall be debarred from enforcing against the transferee and persons

Blog # 28. Principles of Natural Justice In Indian Constitution

In The Constitution of India, nowhere the expression Natural Justice is used. However, golden thread of natural justice sagaciously passed through the body of Indian constitution. Preamble of the constitution includes the words, ‘Justice Social, Economic and political’ liberty of thought, belief, worship... And equality of status and of opportunity, which not only ensures  fairness in social and economical activities of the people but also acts as shield to individuals liberty against the arbitrary action which is the base for principles of Natural Justice. Apart from preamble Art 14 ensures equality before law and equal protection of law to the citizen of India. Art 14 which strike at the root of arbitrariness and Art 21 guarantees right to life and liberty which is the fundamental provision to protect liberty and ensure life with dignity. Art 22 guarantees natural justice and provision of fair hearing to the arrested person. Directive principles of state Policy specially Art 39-A tak